Part Three: The Rockwork Screen, or Grotto
Halswell: The Grotto (or Rockwork Screen) of c. 1754.
The history, purpose, later uses and relative obscurity of this fascinating feature makes it one of the most interesting of the eighteenth-century architectural additions to Halswell by Sir Charles Kemeys-Tynte.
William Kent (1685-1748) was England’s first great landscape designer and his influence throughout the eighteenth-century was immense. In many ways he was a man before his time but his insights into the Arcadian Landscape were taken up by other great designers who came after him, such as Capability Brown (1716-1783). His work on such grottos as those at Burlington House and Rousham had a direct influence upon Halswell’s Grotto which served as a dam, grotto and, originally, a water cascade.
William Kent’s 1738 cascade for Lord Burlington at Chiswick House, London.
Part Two: The Bath Stone Bridge
“One of the most curious and obscure garden buildings in the country – the 1750’s rockwork and shell encrusted Bridge at Halswell. It formed part of Sir Charles Kemeys-Tynte’s freemasonic-inspired circuit of garden buildings in Mill Wood”
So wrote Timothy Mowl and Marion Mako in their book The Historic Gardens of England: Somerset, 2010 about the Bath Stone Bridge of c. 1755 at Halswell’s Mill Wood.
Charles Kemeys-Tynte chose to have himself depicted with books on gardening and his prised Bath Stone Bridge being built behind him.
William Hogarth, detail of the construction of the bridge from his portrait of Sir Charles, c. 1753.
Arthur Young, 1771
Part One: Kemeys-Tynte, Wright and The Druid’s Hut
Was Wright responsible for designing Mill Wood and its buildings?
In this regard the comparison with Wright’s documented work at Stoke Park in Bristol is enlightening, the similarities are so close as to make a full attribution to Wright’s guiding hand at Halswell’s gardens tantalisingly close, as many people now believe.
Historic England’s listing for Stoke Park:
“Barn Wood contains the Beaufort Memorial (Wright 1756, listed grade II), the cold bath (Wright c 1750, listed grade II), a stone tunnel (Wright c 1750, listed grade II), and the surviving footings of the Rotunda (Wright 1755-6). In Hermitage Wood, yew trees mark the site of Bladud’s Cell (Wright 1750), a root house which has disap fpeared. Hermitage Wood is linked to Long Wood via a partially derelict stone tunnel with rusticated entrance arches (Wright c 1750, listed grade II) which runs beneath a track.”
The individual buildings here by Wright, and their interrelationship within a sculpted landscape, bear close comparison to those at Halswell, though many have been lost at both sites. The Rotundas at both estates were nearly identical; Bladud’s Cell, a ‘root house’ similar to Halswell’s Druid’s Hut; Stoke’s Beaufort Memorial shared a similar ethos to Halswell’s Horse Monument, etc. Wright’s work for Norborne Berkeley, 4th Baron Botetourt (1717-1770) at Stoke Park is well enough documented that there is no question of his involvement in that estate. However documentary evidence of his work at Halswell has not been found and therefore establishing connections between Wright and Halswell in other ways must be sought.
Part of the Mill Wood Restoration Scheme
Opposite the Temple of Harmony and sitting in a high position on the southern bank of Mill Wood’s final pond is a stone-faced bridge of three arches. Built between 1756 and 1771 when the northern most end of Mill Wood, along with the temple itself, were added to the earlier phase of the landscape, the bridge straddles the water below at a particularly interesting visual stop. Unlike many of the original room-like eighteenth-century spaces created within this landscape the bridge was intended to have clear sightlines in all four directions.
Standing on the bridge the four views include the Temple of Harmony to the west, the Rotunda to the east, the flow of the ponds to the north and to the south, noisily cascading over a mossy and rusticated rockery below, is the water that finally rests in a large still pond, these days with an island at its centre.
Restoration of the Mill Wood lakes outflow
The water that springs up in the cold bath at the south of Mill Wood flows through various lakes, over many waterfalls, through and under wonderful eighteenth-century bridges and leaves the wood at its southern end where it then flows beneath a man-made culvert and out into the fields opposite where it retakes its form as a natural stream.
This was the grand plan of Sir Charles Kemeys-Tynte (1710 -1785) and, almost certainly, his landscape designer the famous astronomer, mathematician, architect and landscape designer Thomas Wright (1711-1786), of whom a lot more will be written in these pages in due course.
1771 Estate map by William Day. The roadside cascade is on the southern side of the road that passes the northern end of Mill Wood, near to where the Temple of Harmony is marked on the left of this map.
8th February 2016
To commemorate the 25th anniversary of the Somerset Gardens Trust and it’s AGM at Halswell House the Chairman, Mrs Camilla Carter, and Edward Strachan jointly plant an Acer Trauvetteri near the site of Lady Tynte’s Summer House in Mill Wood. The group trundled up the hill in Mill Wood during what can only be described as ‘chilly’ conditions to examine the newly planted native trees and to add a finishing touch of their own.
The choice of the summer house to plant this wonderful gift from the SGT is due to the belief that the building, long since vanished, was in the chinoiserie style and so the inclusion of a non-native tree is appropriate for this part of the wood. The recently commissioned archaeology has revealed that this summer house was about five meters deep with a curved front supported by pillars. As yet we have no images of the lost building but we live in hope that a watercolour or print might survive and surface one day, as so many other important records have done. We are grateful to Mrs Gill Durman for her recollection of the site in the 1950s and will be thrilled to hear from anyone who has any more information or memories of what once stood here!
Camilla Carter, Chairman of the Trust, with Edward Strachan
Some of the brave windswept enthusiasts.
Left to right: Alyona Strachan, Chris Stones, Roy Bolton, Alex Sergeyevs, Ann Manders, Stuart Senior, Edward Strachan, Camilla Carter, Simon Bonvoisin, James Harris, Councillor Ian Dyer, Ann Dyer, Helen Senior and Mark Lidster
Inspecting the trimming of the laurels at the Grotto and Cold Bath. The Roman Bath-style grotto arches have had the full force of thick laurel roots burying into their structures so a careful removal of the worst offenders was needed to secure the structures. Laurel is believed to have always been the plant of choice around this area to give it a canopy of natural wild overgrowth appropriate to the rather pagan elements of the river source and the surrounding follies.
Simon Bonvoisin, braving the cold having graciously given up his coat for a lady, discusses the final phases of tree planting in Mill Wood with Edward Strachan. Some small areas have been left unplanted to leave room for archaeological work and rebuilding the missing follies and the necessary structural work that must be carried out on the dams and bridges.