Part 1: Exploration and Archaeology
The team standing on the large concrete apron that sits in front of the bridge.
While much of the damaged and missing stone is being carved for the restoration of the bridge, the dam works have also been started so that the foundations and leaks are made good before the bridge structure itself is put back to its original glory.
Before work began the water level in the pond in front of the bridge did not rise to the level of the arches, where the water should flow out to create a waterfall behind. Instead it was seeping out and under the dam, potentially causing catastrophic damage to the foundations. Only during flood conditions did the water rise high enough, and then too high, creating dangers to the whole of the bridge structure itself. The concrete apron we were sure was added in the 1970’s when Mr Nataro owned the field and completed a lot of works which no doubt helped the landscape survive until the restorations could be taken up once more. What lay under this concrete apron was a mystery. Was the concrete covering an older similar in-fill that was necessary to create the dam and support the stone bridge? Or was it entirely constructed in the 1970’s and not part of the original engineering? Was it superfluous or necessary to keep the dam from crumbling and being washed down stream?
Diggers large and small put into action to understand the archaeology.
The only way to find out was to remove the broken and leaking concrete, both to locate the weaknesses and to restore the original form, if that proved possible. The condition of the above-ground bridge structure, though propped up and secured from both sides, was still highly delicate and the works needed to proceed with the greatest care to avoid unnecessary shocks and vibrations. Continue reading
Part 1: Repairing The Stone
Since 2016 mason Mike Orchard has been carving new stone to replace the damaged or lost elements of this Halswell Park icon.
The restoration started with scaffolding to the bridge and removal of dangerous tree limbs before the winter could do any more damage to the structure. Each stone had to be numbered and mapped both on the working drawings and on the stones themselves, before dismantling the most precarious areas could begin.
The Bath Stone Bridge in Mill Wood was created by Sir Charles Kemeys-Tynte (1710-1785) and probably Thomas Wright (1711-1786) as the show piece in the of their water garden vision.
The ashlar apse at the back of the central pediment had roots digging through the cracks and had been losing cut stone blocks into the water below for many years. Before Mike could evaluate the missing stone that needed to be remade a catalogue of all the stone found on site was needed so that the jigsaw could be understood. Salvaging stone lost in the silt was one of the first tasks.
Part Three: The Rockwork Screen, or Grotto
Halswell: The Grotto (or Rockwork Screen) of c. 1754.
The history, purpose, later uses and relative obscurity of this fascinating feature makes it one of the most interesting of the eighteenth-century architectural additions to Halswell by Sir Charles Kemeys-Tynte.
William Kent (1685-1748) was England’s first great landscape designer and his influence throughout the eighteenth-century was immense. In many ways he was a man before his time but his insights into the Arcadian Landscape were taken up by other great designers who came after him, such as Capability Brown (1716-1783). His work on such grottos as those at Burlington House and Rousham had a direct influence upon Halswell’s Grotto which served as a dam, grotto and, originally, a water cascade.
William Kent’s 1738 cascade for Lord Burlington at Chiswick House, London.
Part Two: The Bath Stone Bridge
“One of the most curious and obscure garden buildings in the country – the 1750’s rockwork and shell encrusted Bridge at Halswell. It formed part of Sir Charles Kemeys-Tynte’s freemasonic-inspired circuit of garden buildings in Mill Wood”
So wrote Timothy Mowl and Marion Mako in their book The Historic Gardens of England: Somerset, 2010 about the Bath Stone Bridge of c. 1755 at Halswell’s Mill Wood.
Charles Kemeys-Tynte chose to have himself depicted with books on gardening and his prised Bath Stone Bridge being built behind him.
William Hogarth, detail of the construction of the bridge from his portrait of Sir Charles, c. 1753.
Arthur Young, 1771
Part One: Kemeys-Tynte, Wright and The Druid’s Hut
Was Wright responsible for designing Mill Wood and its buildings?
In this regard the comparison with Wright’s documented work at Stoke Park in Bristol is enlightening, the similarities are so close as to make a full attribution to Wright’s guiding hand at Halswell’s gardens tantalisingly close, as many people now believe.
Historic England’s listing for Stoke Park:
“Barn Wood contains the Beaufort Memorial (Wright 1756, listed grade II), the cold bath (Wright c 1750, listed grade II), a stone tunnel (Wright c 1750, listed grade II), and the surviving footings of the Rotunda (Wright 1755-6). In Hermitage Wood, yew trees mark the site of Bladud’s Cell (Wright 1750), a root house which has disap fpeared. Hermitage Wood is linked to Long Wood via a partially derelict stone tunnel with rusticated entrance arches (Wright c 1750, listed grade II) which runs beneath a track.”
The individual buildings here by Wright, and their interrelationship within a sculpted landscape, bear close comparison to those at Halswell, though many have been lost at both sites. The Rotundas at both estates were nearly identical; Bladud’s Cell, a ‘root house’ similar to Halswell’s Druid’s Hut; Stoke’s Beaufort Memorial shared a similar ethos to Halswell’s Horse Monument, etc. Wright’s work for Norborne Berkeley, 4th Baron Botetourt (1717-1770) at Stoke Park is well enough documented that there is no question of his involvement in that estate. However documentary evidence of his work at Halswell has not been found and therefore establishing connections between Wright and Halswell in other ways must be sought.
Part of the Mill Wood Restoration Scheme
Opposite the Temple of Harmony and sitting in a high position on the southern bank of Mill Wood’s final pond is a stone-faced bridge of three arches. Built between 1756 and 1771 when the northern most end of Mill Wood, along with the temple itself, were added to the earlier phase of the landscape, the bridge straddles the water below at a particularly interesting visual stop. Unlike many of the original room-like eighteenth-century spaces created within this landscape the bridge was intended to have clear sightlines in all four directions.
Standing on the bridge the four views include the Temple of Harmony to the west, the Rotunda to the east, the flow of the ponds to the north and to the south, noisily cascading over a mossy and rusticated rockery below, is the water that finally rests in a large still pond, these days with an island at its centre.
Restoration of the Mill Wood lakes outflow
The water that springs up in the cold bath at the south of Mill Wood flows through various lakes, over many waterfalls, through and under wonderful eighteenth-century bridges and leaves the wood at its southern end where it then flows beneath a man-made culvert and out into the fields opposite where it retakes its form as a natural stream.
This was the grand plan of Sir Charles Kemeys-Tynte (1710 -1785) and, almost certainly, his landscape designer the famous astronomer, mathematician, architect and landscape designer Thomas Wright (1711-1786), of whom a lot more will be written in these pages in due course.
1771 Estate map by William Day. The roadside cascade is on the southern side of the road that passes the northern end of Mill Wood, near to where the Temple of Harmony is marked on the left of this map.